The Secret Behind Successful Mango Production In India
The king of fruits, mango is easily one of the most sought-after treats in the summer months. As the weather outside gets warmer and harsher, it is time to treat your senses with delicious fresh mangoes. Loved by all ages, this special fruit hardly needs any introduction. Want to know what Amitabh Bachchan and other top B-town celebrities think about this unique gift of nature? Click here.
Mango production in India
Did you know that India ranks first in mango production, accounting for almost 48% of the total world produce? The warmer months are mostly about mangoes for many. From mango shakes to raw mango pickles, ripe mangoes to mango-based regional treats, the heavenly flavour of this special fruit is an absolute must-have in every single summery treat. As temperature rises, the world seems to rotate around mangoes instead of the Sun.
The fruit that soothes your soul and pampers your tongue also makes you proud as an Indian. With an average annual production of 15 million tonnes, India meets mango-cravings of most individuals across the globe.
Check out the following creative by Maps of India in this regard.
State-wise mango production in India
Did you know that there are 283 types of mangoes in India alone? That’s fascinating isn’t it? Out of this huge range, only 30 varieties are well-known and widely consumed. The major mango-producing states of India are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh. However, mango is also cultivated in other states such as Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and Kerala.
Check out the following chart for state-wise mango production in India.
Source: Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
With the rising demand graph, mango production has been taken more seriously, resulting in wider areas allotted for the cultivation. The following area of mango-production comparative graph between 1997-98 and 2001-02 demonstrates this change brilliantly.
Soil & climate requirement for mango cultivation
Well adapted to sub-tropical and tropical climate, mango trees thrive in most parts of India. High humidity and temperature between 24 degrees and 30 degrees are considered ideal for growing top-quality mangoes.
Mango trees can flourish in a wide variety of soils including alluvial, lateritic, sandy, and sandy loam. However, a well-drained deep soil with a rich dose of organic matter is known to be the most suitable one. Also the water table needs to be around 3m as higher levels do not support mango production.
Note: Now you know the fine balance that needs to be maintained in order to produce the mangoes that the entire world is after. Ameya Vartak (owner of Aamrai) discussed this in details in an exclusive interview. Click here to read it.
Propagation – the fundamental of mango production
The king of fruits can be raised from seeds and is the most cost-effective way, but vegetative propagation is the preferred route. Vegetative propagation ensures that the characteristics of the parent trees remain intact. However, raising from seeds is also essential as the seedlings need to be used as rootstocks.
This is a simple method with a high success rate of 75% to 80%. July is said to be the best time for this method of mango propagation. As per the National Horticulture Board this grafting technique involves young seedlings that are still attached to the stones, accounting for the name.
This method is similar to that of stone grafting but is done with slightly older seedlings. July and August are said to be the best time for this method.
This widely-used special method of approach grafting is time-consuming and complex. 1-year-old seedlings are united with a shoot of the chosen mother tree to give rise to a new high-quality mango tree. The active growth period is the best time for inarching.
Veneer grafting is one of the best methods for commercial propagation, thanks to the simple technique involved. The rootstocks suitable for this method is similar to the ones used for inarching. The scion is inserted carefully to ensure that the cambium layers remain on the longer side.
Worldwide demand & supply pattern
Among all tropical fruits that are traded internationally, mango stands second only to pineapple in terms of value and quantity. Asian produces have always found European Union to be the best selling option in terms of expansion and acceptability. A wider variety of mangoes are imported by the EU countries as compared to other parts of the world, thanks to the presence of large Asian immigrant groups. The Gulf countries are also highly rated by Indian mango producers in terms of exporting prospect. You must be aware of the craze that surrounds the special variety of Alphonso. Did you know that more than 13,000 MT Alphonsos are exported every year to the Middle East, United Kingdom, and Netherlands?
Are the mango-based products exported?
Mango is loved in many forms and the feeling is not limited by geographical boundaries, resulting in a growing trend of demand for mango-based products in all parts of the world. Items such as pickles, chutney, jam, squash, juice, slices, nectar, and pulp are exported to USA, UK, Russia, and Kuwait. The mango-based products allow consumers to relish the taste of their favourite fruit throughout the year. Did the mention of pickles and chutney make your mouth water? Click here to satisfy your cravings.
Note: Not all varieties of mango are exported. The main demand is around Alphonso, Kesar, Dasheri, and Banganpalli.
Associations/societies that support mango export
A co-operative society called Mahamango was formed in 1991 with the support of Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune) to boost export and help the domestic marketing of Alphonso. With facilities such as pack houses, cold storages, and pre-cooling, Mahamango makes life easier for the producers in more ways than one.
Another society called Mangrow operates from the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra with complete focus on Kesar mangoes.
The growing belts and the varieties produced
Mangoes are grown in almost all parts of India. Be it pure varieties or hybrid ones, almost all regions have some form of mangoes to boast about. Mangoes have also been classified on the basis of their ripening time. Check out the following chart for a clearer understanding.
The growing belts of different states and the varieties produced are listed in the following two charts.
Right nutrition for successful production
Yes, mango is a storehouse of essential nutrients. However, the trees also require proper nutrition to be able to produce these unique gifts of nature. Check out the following table for the nutritional requirement of mango trees.
Mango production in India has seen an exponential rise, thanks to the ever-increasing demand of Indian mangoes in the world market. This article gives you an insight into the story that precedes production and also shares some interesting related facts. From state-wise production to propagation techniques, this write-up covers all areas and analyses the issue with a data-oriented approach. Want to know more about Alphonsos? Click here.
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